Since Yasser Arafat returned to Palestine in July 1994 under the Oslo Accords, many people find themselves worse off than before. Tens of thousands are out of work as a result of Israeli border closures. Social services are contracting, as NGOs run out of funds and Palestinians lose access to Israeli services. The new Palestinian Authority is preoccupied with security issues and has not forwarded any program for reconstruction and development. Meanwhile, Israel has seized more than 16,000 hectares of Palestinian land since the 1993 Accords were signed. As the peace agreement unravels, frustration, mistrust and violence rise steadily, not only between Israelis and Palestinians but among Palestinians themselves. New forms of struggle are needed but the short-term outlook for renewal and change is grim, at least within the main political parties.